+
|
|
|
|
+

Conditional Coding.

Struggle with C preprocessor interleaved iffy Haskell code?
Forget CPP. Wipe your code clean with cabal conditionals!



{-# LANGUAGE CPP #-}

module GHC.TcPluginM.Extra

#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(9,2,0)
#elif MIN_VERSION_ghc(9,0,0)
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(9,0,0)
#else
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,5,0)
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#else
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 809
#else
#endif
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 802
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 809
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 806
#endif
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 809
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#else
#endif
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 802
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,5,0)
#elif __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,5,0)
#else
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 802
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,4,0)
#elif MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,0,0)
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(9,2,0)
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,6,0)
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 900
#elif __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 809
#elif __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 802
#elif __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ > 711
#endif

I have a dependency on ghc-tcplugins-extra. The panel on the right shows the #ifdefs of its one module, GHC.TcPluginM.Extra. I’m happy with this package and don’t help maintain it so why am I making a disruptive pull request with 63 changed files, 1,902 additions and 458 deletions?

CPP Hell, No!

I don’t much like CPP and find nested conditional blocks hard to disentangle. One or two is fine but when they’re nested and the conditions range over many GHC versions I find it hard to take in the whole at a glance let alone see the difference between one GHC version and the next. What is more #ifdefs are noise in the source file.

We can can stop or reduce {-# LANGUAGE CPP #-} pragma use even when we need to switch code between GHC versions. I’ll show you how using ghc-tcplugins-extra as an example.

One Internal Indirection

To start, I gut src/GHC.TcPluginM.Extra1 and defer to import Internal for the implementation so that this module only imports and re-exports. None of the definitions remain.

module GHC.TcPluginM.Extra
    ( -- * Create new constraints
    newWanted
    , newGiven
    , newDerived
    -- * Creating evidence
    , evByFiat
    -- * Lookup
    , lookupModule
    , lookupName
    -- * Trace state of the plugin
    , tracePlugin
    -- * Substitutions
    , flattenGivens
    , mkSubst
    , mkSubst'
    , substType
    , substCt
    ) where

import Internal

I thought this might screw around with the haddocks but they look good, the internal module is invisible and the module tree is unchanged.

Modules

In the implementation I have two module hierarchies, GhcApi.* and Internal.*.

Cabal Conditionals

In the cabal file with impl(ghc?) conditonals we can pick which files to compile. This is how we’re going to branch instead of using #ifdefs interleaved with the source code.

library
    exposed-modules:
        GHC.TcPluginM.Extra
    other-modules:
        Internal
    hs-source-dirs:
        src
    if impl(ghc >= 9.2) && impl(ghc < 9.4)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-tree
            src-ghc-9.2
    if impl(ghc >= 9.0) && impl(ghc < 9.2)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-tree
            src-ghc-9.0
    if impl(ghc >= 8.10) && impl(ghc < 9.0)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.10
    if impl(ghc >= 8.8) && impl(ghc < 8.10)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.8
    if impl(ghc >= 8.6) && impl(ghc < 8.8)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.6
    if impl(ghc >= 8.4) && impl(ghc < 8.6)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.4
    if impl(ghc >= 8.2) && impl(ghc < 8.4)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.2
    if impl(ghc >= 8.0) && impl(ghc < 8.2)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.0
    if impl(ghc >= 7.10) && impl(ghc < 8.0)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-cpp

When some things stay the same but others change between GHC versions we can group modules into different hs-source-dirs directories.

When 8.0 <= ghc < 9.0 in src-ghc-flat we import from the flatter GHC module hierarchy but with src-ghc-tree we import from the newer layout of GHC modules with a deeper hierarchy. To track less sweeping changes between GHC dot-even-numbered releases we’ll use version-specific directories like src-ghc-9.0 and src-ghc-9.2.

File Diffing

We’re trading duplicating modules for ease of diffing. With everyday file diff tooling we can review how we tracked GHC changes more explicitly. No more squinting at mixed language source files. For a library such as ghc-tcplugins-extra, supporting a newer GHC version starts with copying a directory, recompiling and then making whatever changes are necessary without fear of screwing up support for older versions because the version-specific directories are isolated. If we stuffed up the cabal conditionals somehow we’d get an error when compiling, either about missing modules or about duplicate modules.

One change between src-ghc-9.0 and src-ghc-9.2.

--- src-ghc-9.0/GhcApi/Constraint.hs
+++ src-ghc-9.2/GhcApi/Constraint.hs
   module GhcApi.Constraint
       ( Ct(..
       , CtEvidence(..)
       , CtLoc
+      , CanEqLHS(..)
       , ctLoc
       , ctEvId
       , mkNonCanonical
       ) where

   import GHC.Tc.Types.Constraint
-      ( Ct(..), CtEvidence(..), CtLoc
+      ( Ct(..), CtEvidence(..), CanEqLHS(..), CtLoc
       , ctLoc, ctEvId, mkNonCanonical
       )

An example of reacting to GHC’s change to a deeper module hierarchy.

--- src-ghc-flat/GhcApi/Predicate.hs
+++ src-ghc-tree/GhcApi/Predicate.hs
   module GhcApi.Predicate (mkPrimEqPred) where

-  import Predicate (mkPrimEqPred)
+  import GHC.Core.Coercion (mkPrimEqPred)

Cabal Mixins

With mixins we can rename and alias module names2. The hiding () exposes the current names and the as does the aliasing.

mixins:
    ghc hiding ()
  , ghc (TcRnTypes as Constraint)
  , ghc (Type as Predicate)

I could have avoided using mixins like this but it helped insulate me from GHC API changes.

module GhcApi.Constraint
    ( Ct(..)
    , CtEvidence(..)
    , CtLoc
    , ctLoc
    , ctEvId
    , mkNonCanonical
    ) where

import Constraint (Ct (..), CtEvidence (..), CtLoc, ctLoc, ctEvId, mkNonCanonical)

I can import Constraint when that module exists in GHC and when it doesn’t exist.

> cabal build all
Build profile: -w ghc-8.10.7 -O1
[1 of 8] Compiling GhcApi.Constraint
[2 of 8] Compiling GhcApi.GhcPlugins
[3 of 8] Compiling GhcApi.Predicate
[4 of 8] Compiling Internal.Constraint
[5 of 8] Compiling Internal.Evidence
[6 of 8] Compiling Internal.Type
[7 of 8] Compiling Internal
[8 of 8] Compiling GHC.TcPluginM.Extra

Without the mixin renaming TcRnTypes to Constraint this module errors.

> cabal build all
Build profile: -w ghc-8.8.4 -O1

src-ghc-flat/GhcApi/Constraint.hs:11:1: error:
    Could not find module ‘Constraint’
    Perhaps you meant Constants (from ghc-8.8.4)
    Use -v (or `:set -v` in ghci) to see a list of the files searched for.
   |
11 | import Constraint
   | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^...

Simpler with Dhall

Tweaking the cabal file with all these conditionals and mixins is a bit too much repetitive work but with hpack-dhall we can simplify this chore.

λ(low : Text) →
λ(high : Text) →
λ(srcs : List Text) →
λ(ghc : { name : Text, mixin : List Text }) →
λ(mods : List Text) →
  { condition = "impl(ghc >= ${low}) && impl(ghc < ${high})"
  , source-dirs =
      Prelude/List/map Text Text (λ(x : Text) → "src-ghc-${x}") srcs
  , dependencies = [ ghc ⫽ { version = ">=${low} && <${high}" } ]
  , other-modules = mods
  }

Why do this?

I feel that copying code files this way is better than using CPP. We can single thread our thoughts looking at plain Haskell code uninterrupted by C prepocessor #ifdefs and deal with only one GHC version at a time when getting the code to compile against a newer GHC version or when debugging a problem.

Backporting changes is simpler too because of the diffing but may require more edits if ranging back over multiple GHC versions. If we don’t care about backporting then the set of modules for an older GHC version can be left alone as we don’t need to touch them with CPP #ifdefs.


  1. Except for ghc < 8.0 where I have left the original CPP-heavy module alone untouched.↩︎

  2. Mixins are a cabal 2.0 feature and requires impl(ghc >= 8.2). That’s true if I use stack but with cabal-install I can get impl(ghc >= 7.10.3) && impl(ghc < 8.0) to compile a package using cabal mixins. With the cabal github action in .github/workflows/cabal.yml cabal can build against GHC versions [ 7.10.3, 8.0.2, 8.2.2, 8.4.4, 8.6.5, 8.8.4, 8.10.7, 9.0.1, 9.2.1 ]↩︎


+
|
|
|
|
+

Conditional Coding.

Struggle with C preprocessor interleaved iffy Haskell code?
Forget CPP. Wipe your code clean with cabal conditionals!



{-# LANGUAGE CPP #-}

module GHC.TcPluginM.Extra

#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(9,2,0)
#elif MIN_VERSION_ghc(9,0,0)
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(9,0,0)
#else
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,5,0)
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#else
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 809
#else
#endif
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 802
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 809
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 806
#endif
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 809
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#else
#endif
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 802
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,5,0)
#elif __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,5,0)
#else
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 711
#else
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 802
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,4,0)
#elif MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,0,0)
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(9,2,0)
#else
#endif
#if MIN_VERSION_ghc(8,6,0)
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 900
#elif __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 809
#elif __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ >= 802
#elif __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 711
#endif
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ > 711
#endif

I have a dependency on ghc-tcplugins-extra. The panel on the right shows the #ifdefs of its one module, GHC.TcPluginM.Extra. I’m happy with this package and don’t help maintain it so why am I making a disruptive pull request with 63 changed files, 1,902 additions and 458 deletions?

CPP Hell, No!

I don’t much like CPP and find nested conditional blocks hard to disentangle. One or two is fine but when they’re nested and the conditions range over many GHC versions I find it hard to take in the whole at a glance let alone see the difference between one GHC version and the next. What is more #ifdefs are noise in the source file.

We can can stop or reduce {-# LANGUAGE CPP #-} pragma use even when we need to switch code between GHC versions. I’ll show you how using ghc-tcplugins-extra as an example.

One Internal Indirection

To start, I gut src/GHC.TcPluginM.Extra1 and defer to import Internal for the implementation so that this module only imports and re-exports. None of the definitions remain.

module GHC.TcPluginM.Extra
    ( -- * Create new constraints
    newWanted
    , newGiven
    , newDerived
    -- * Creating evidence
    , evByFiat
    -- * Lookup
    , lookupModule
    , lookupName
    -- * Trace state of the plugin
    , tracePlugin
    -- * Substitutions
    , flattenGivens
    , mkSubst
    , mkSubst'
    , substType
    , substCt
    ) where

import Internal

I thought this might screw around with the haddocks but they look good, the internal module is invisible and the module tree is unchanged.

Modules

In the implementation I have two module hierarchies, GhcApi.* and Internal.*.

Cabal Conditionals

In the cabal file with impl(ghc?) conditonals we can pick which files to compile. This is how we’re going to branch instead of using #ifdefs interleaved with the source code.

library
    exposed-modules:
        GHC.TcPluginM.Extra
    other-modules:
        Internal
    hs-source-dirs:
        src
    if impl(ghc >= 9.2) && impl(ghc < 9.4)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-tree
            src-ghc-9.2
    if impl(ghc >= 9.0) && impl(ghc < 9.2)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-tree
            src-ghc-9.0
    if impl(ghc >= 8.10) && impl(ghc < 9.0)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.10
    if impl(ghc >= 8.8) && impl(ghc < 8.10)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.8
    if impl(ghc >= 8.6) && impl(ghc < 8.8)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.6
    if impl(ghc >= 8.4) && impl(ghc < 8.6)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.4
    if impl(ghc >= 8.2) && impl(ghc < 8.4)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.2
    if impl(ghc >= 8.0) && impl(ghc < 8.2)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-flat
            src-ghc-8.0
    if impl(ghc >= 7.10) && impl(ghc < 8.0)
        hs-source-dirs:
            src-ghc-cpp

When some things stay the same but others change between GHC versions we can group modules into different hs-source-dirs directories.

When 8.0 <= ghc < 9.0 in src-ghc-flat we import from the flatter GHC module hierarchy but with src-ghc-tree we import from the newer layout of GHC modules with a deeper hierarchy. To track less sweeping changes between GHC dot-even-numbered releases we’ll use version-specific directories like src-ghc-9.0 and src-ghc-9.2.

File Diffing

We’re trading duplicating modules for ease of diffing. With everyday file diff tooling we can review how we tracked GHC changes more explicitly. No more squinting at mixed language source files. For a library such as ghc-tcplugins-extra, supporting a newer GHC version starts with copying a directory, recompiling and then making whatever changes are necessary without fear of screwing up support for older versions because the version-specific directories are isolated. If we stuffed up the cabal conditionals somehow we’d get an error when compiling, either about missing modules or about duplicate modules.

One change between src-ghc-9.0 and src-ghc-9.2.

--- src-ghc-9.0/GhcApi/Constraint.hs
+++ src-ghc-9.2/GhcApi/Constraint.hs
   module GhcApi.Constraint
       ( Ct(..
       , CtEvidence(..)
       , CtLoc
+      , CanEqLHS(..)
       , ctLoc
       , ctEvId
       , mkNonCanonical
       ) where

   import GHC.Tc.Types.Constraint
-      ( Ct(..), CtEvidence(..), CtLoc
+      ( Ct(..), CtEvidence(..), CanEqLHS(..), CtLoc
       , ctLoc, ctEvId, mkNonCanonical
       )

An example of reacting to GHC’s change to a deeper module hierarchy.

--- src-ghc-flat/GhcApi/Predicate.hs
+++ src-ghc-tree/GhcApi/Predicate.hs
   module GhcApi.Predicate (mkPrimEqPred) where

-  import Predicate (mkPrimEqPred)
+  import GHC.Core.Coercion (mkPrimEqPred)

Cabal Mixins

With mixins we can rename and alias module names2. The hiding () exposes the current names and the as does the aliasing.

mixins:
    ghc hiding ()
  , ghc (TcRnTypes as Constraint)
  , ghc (Type as Predicate)

I could have avoided using mixins like this but it helped insulate me from GHC API changes.

module GhcApi.Constraint
    ( Ct(..)
    , CtEvidence(..)
    , CtLoc
    , ctLoc
    , ctEvId
    , mkNonCanonical
    ) where

import Constraint (Ct (..), CtEvidence (..), CtLoc, ctLoc, ctEvId, mkNonCanonical)

I can import Constraint when that module exists in GHC and when it doesn’t exist.

> cabal build all
Build profile: -w ghc-8.10.7 -O1
[1 of 8] Compiling GhcApi.Constraint
[2 of 8] Compiling GhcApi.GhcPlugins
[3 of 8] Compiling GhcApi.Predicate
[4 of 8] Compiling Internal.Constraint
[5 of 8] Compiling Internal.Evidence
[6 of 8] Compiling Internal.Type
[7 of 8] Compiling Internal
[8 of 8] Compiling GHC.TcPluginM.Extra

Without the mixin renaming TcRnTypes to Constraint this module errors.

> cabal build all
Build profile: -w ghc-8.8.4 -O1

src-ghc-flat/GhcApi/Constraint.hs:11:1: error:
    Could not find module ‘Constraint’
    Perhaps you meant Constants (from ghc-8.8.4)
    Use -v (or `:set -v` in ghci) to see a list of the files searched for.
   |
11 | import Constraint
   | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^...

Simpler with Dhall

Tweaking the cabal file with all these conditionals and mixins is a bit too much repetitive work but with hpack-dhall we can simplify this chore.

λ(low : Text) →
λ(high : Text) →
λ(srcs : List Text) →
λ(ghc : { name : Text, mixin : List Text }) →
λ(mods : List Text) →
  { condition = "impl(ghc >= ${low}) && impl(ghc < ${high})"
  , source-dirs =
      Prelude/List/map Text Text (λ(x : Text) → "src-ghc-${x}") srcs
  , dependencies = [ ghc ⫽ { version = ">=${low} && <${high}" } ]
  , other-modules = mods
  }

Why do this?

I feel that copying code files this way is better than using CPP. We can single thread our thoughts looking at plain Haskell code uninterrupted by C prepocessor #ifdefs and deal with only one GHC version at a time when getting the code to compile against a newer GHC version or when debugging a problem.

Backporting changes is simpler too because of the diffing but may require more edits if ranging back over multiple GHC versions. If we don’t care about backporting then the set of modules for an older GHC version can be left alone as we don’t need to touch them with CPP #ifdefs.


  1. Except for ghc < 8.0 where I have left the original CPP-heavy module alone untouched.↩︎

  2. Mixins are a cabal 2.0 feature and requires impl(ghc >= 8.2). That’s true if I use stack but with cabal-install I can get impl(ghc >= 7.10.3) && impl(ghc < 8.0) to compile a package using cabal mixins. With the cabal github action in .github/workflows/cabal.yml cabal can build against GHC versions [ 7.10.3, 8.0.2, 8.2.2, 8.4.4, 8.6.5, 8.8.4, 8.10.7, 9.0.1, 9.2.1 ]↩︎